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Ethereum is a virtual machine built using a blockchain (spread around many clients) that lets you create and run smart contracts (arbitrary code) that then run in perpetuity.

Solidity is nice prototype language. You can also use Solang to compile Solidity code for Solana chain.

StarkNet & Cairo are interesting. Eth2 Book seems nice.

Helios is a nice Eth client. Kakarot is interesting.

Evolution of the Ethereum proof-of-stake consensus protocol is nice read.

Optimism has nice code to read to better understand Ethereum.